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Navi Mumbai is a planned satellite township of Mumbai on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a new urban township of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city in the world .

HistoryEdit

Navi Mumbai, located in the eastern trans harbour of Mumbai, Maharashtra, is one of the world's largest planned townships. Since independence, the decision to build a new city on the mainland across the harbour was for a specific purpose: to decongest Mumbai, an island city whose physical expansion had a limit. It was also earmarked as an alternative heaven for the multitudes that thronged to Mumbai from all over India. This decision required the state government to exercise the matching, politically speaking, hard option to relocate its seat of governance along with all its important offices to this new city, and completely stop the backbay reclamation project in the island city. It did nothing of the sort. It continued with the reclamation and put brakes on the efforts of CIDCO (such as the shifting of wholesale markets).

Planned CityEdit

Navi Mumbai SkylineThe planning of Navi Mumbai could begin, in the right earnest, only by 1971. South Navi Mumbai is being developed rapidly with its class infrastructure and modern nodes of Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel and Kalamboli.

CIDCO DevelopmentEdit

Palm Beach Marg between Vashi and Belapur, Navi Mumbai. A major portion of the road passes through Nerul.Utsav Chowk at KhargharShivaji ChowkThe City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was formed on 17 March 1971, under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The area covered 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the total 720 kilometres (450 mi) of the Konkan coast. Privately owned land conisisting of 86 villages covering 15,954 hectares (39,420 acres) within the present limits of Navi Mumbai and further villages measuring an additional 2,870 hectares (7,100 acres) were acquired by the government of Maharashtra.CIDCO carved out 14 nodes small townships with a view towards facilitating comprehensive development. These nodes are named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Taloja, Kalamboli, Ulwe, and Dronagiri. CIDCO acquired 193.94 square kilometres (74.88 sq mi) of land, of which 141.05 square kilometres (54.46 sq mi) was private land, 22.92 square kilometres (8.85 sq mi) salt-pan land and 52.89 square kilometres (20.42 sq mi) government land. By 2000, CIDCO had developed about 117.60 square kilometres (45.41 sq mi) of land. Of this land, 54.45 square kilometres (21.02 sq mi) is saleable under various land uses. CIDCO has sold about 21.90 square kilometres (8.46 sq mi) leaving a balance land for sale about 32.58 square kilometres (12.58 sq mi) under various land uses.CIDCO planned and constructed all the railway stations in Navi Mumbai and developed nearby areas commercially.Vashi Bridge across the creek.In 1973, the Vashi bridge was opened to the public for residents of Vashi, CBD Belapur and Nerul. The Sion-Panvel Expressway was built to reduce the time taken to travel from Sion to Panvel. Initially there was not much response to the new city. Major changes took place only after 1990, with the commissioning of a wholesale agricultural produce market at Vashi and the construction of a commuter railway line from Mankhurd to Vashi in May 1992. These developments caused a sudden growth in economic activities and population in Navi Mumbai.

Recent DevelopmentsEdit

By the end of the 1990s, the planning authority of Navi Mumbai initiated private participation in the developmental activity of Navi Mumbai.Some of the older and more populated nodes are Vashi, Nerul and CBD Belapur. Some of the more recently developed nodes include Kharghar, Kamothe, Airoli, Kopar Khairane, Ghansoli and New Panvel.A new railway link between Nerul and Uran is under construction. Kharghar and Panvel are experiencing major infrastructural developments due to their proximity to the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport.

AdministrationEdit

CIDCOEdit

When Navi Mumbai was created in 1970s, CIDCO was the only authority that looked after the development and maintenance of the city. CIDCO prepared a developmental plan for Navi Mumbai covering 95 villagesKokan BhavanFor the first ten years of the project CIDCO acted as the planning and administrative body, and as the developer and builder for the project. Taxes on property, land, commercial and water were payable to CIDCO. The 14 nodes which CIDCO created were named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Pushpak and Dronagiri. Each of the nodes is divided into smaller groups called sectors.Initially only Vashi, Nerul and CBD Belapur were developed by CIDCO with housing, schools and community centre roads. But after the arrival of the harbour railway line extension in 1990s, there was an increase in population. CIDCO shifted its development plan to nodes like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, and Kopar Khairane. In its new development plan, CIDCO land was allocated to builders for housing. CIDCO only provided basic infrastructure like roads, water and electricity, these nodes were developed mostly by private builders according to the CIDCO plan.

NMMCEdit

On 17 December 1991, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) was constituted by the state government for maintaining some of the developed nodes of Navi Mumbai.Local self government started on 1 January 1992. NMMC was handed nine of the 25 nodes of the Navi Mumbai project area for its jurisdiction. However, CIDCO, as a planning authority, has rights on the open plots in these five nodes.The nine nodes maintained by NMMC are CBD Belapur, Nerul, Vashi, Turbhe, Kopar khairane, Ghansoli, Airoli, Digha, and Sanpada as of 1 January 1998, with the physical and social infrastructure already in place.With annual budget exceeding Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, it is rated amongst the richest corporations in Maharashtra.The municipal corporation is headed by a municipal commissioner and an elected mayor. There are 64 electoral wards in Navi Mumbai. A corporator is elected in each of the wards.The newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai on the south side like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel and Kalamboli are still maintained by CIDCO. These nodes, which are all beyond CBD Belapur, come under the Raigad district and are under the maintenance of CIDCO.

DemographicsEdit

As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Navi Mumbai in 2011 is 1,119,477; of which male and female are 611,501 and 507,976 respectively. Although Navi Mumbai city has population of 1,119,477; its urban / metropolitan population is 18,414,288 of which 9,894,088 are males and 8,520,200 are females.In education section, total literates in Navi Mumbai city are 911,542 of which 519,257 are males while 392,285 are females. Average literacy rate of Navi Mumbai city is 91.57 percent of which male and female literacy was 95.05 and 87.33 percent. The sex ratio of Navi Mumbai city is 831 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 901 per 1000 boys.

TransportationEdit

Panvel Suburban Railway Terminus.NMMT AC VOLVOTrivandrum Rajdhani Express at Platform No. 7 of Panvel Rly StnNerul Rly Stn WestWithin each node, the auto rickshaw is the preferred mode of transportation. Taxis operating from designated taxi stands provide the means to travel further to destinations. Taxis charge a fixed rate approved by the R.T.O.The Mumbai suburban railway network covers most of the populated region of the city. The most important suburban stations are Vashi, Nerul, Belapur & Panvel. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Panvel is the only mainline station and also the busiest railway station of Navi Mumbai. All outstation trains halt here for time periods varying from 5 to 20 minutes. It is an important junction, railway lines come and meet here and it is connected to almost all parts of India. A new broad gauge line is functional between Karjat & Panvel and currently plies two express trains.BEST buses of the 500 series travel all over Navi Mumbai. NMMT AC Volvo and BEST AC Kinglong buses are available from Mumbai to Navi Mumbai and vice versa . The 10 km long Palm Beach Road of six lane connects Vashi to CBD Belapur running parallel to the creek. It is a twin of the Marine Drive.Navi Mumbai boasts the most advanced port in India, Jawaharlal Nehru port at Nhava Sheva near Uran. It is well connected with road, and handles approximately 65% of India's container traffic.Navi Mumbai is located just 30 km away from Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport.

International AirportEdit

The Navi Mumbai International Airport will be built in the Panvel area, It will be built through Public Private Partnership (PPP), with private sector partners having 74% equity and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Government of Maharashtra (through CIDCO) each holding 13%.The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has already given techno-feasibility clearance to the airport. The central government provided cabinet approval for the construction on 31 May 2007. Specialised consultants were appointed and the global tendering process is underway. The government authorities are still planning the land acquisition.

InfrastructureEdit

Basic infrastructure worth 40 billion (US$730 million) is already in place. The city boasts a reliable supply of electricity from various sources, and excellent motoring conditions, with numerous flyovers, broad roads, and parking lots. The main problem facing the residents is poor connectivity with Mumbai, with only two road links between the two cities and a single rail line. A hovercraft service from Vashi to Colaba and the CBD to Colaba did not succeed due to the high cost of tickets and maintenance. Cidco is planning to relaunch its hovercraft service from Vashi, Belapur, Nerul, and Airoli to Gateway of India.

CommerceEdit

Vashi station complex , Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trustis the busiest port in India.Belapur Railway StationMost of the software companies in Maharashtra have their offices in Navi Mumbai. The government of Maharashtra has set up software parks to cater to the growing demand. Many large institutions have their offices here. Since 2005, TheReliance group of industries have had a major presence, andDAKC in Kopar Khairane and Mahape. Other prominent companies include CORE Projects & Technologies Ltd,Hexaware Technologies, Mastek, Enser Communications,Patni Computer Systems, Intellenet, Hewitt Associates, TCS,Digit magazine, V2Solutions, IRIS Business Services Private Limited, Indiagames,RectifyCredit, Webele, K-Dimensions andCarwale. Most of them are located in an area called theMillenium Business Park in Mahape. As a part of long-term planning, major commodity markets have begun moving from the heart of Mumbai city to Navi Mumbai. Kalamboli (a node in Navi Mumbai) is home to a major steel market.Vashi has the fresh fruits and vegetables market. One of the important business landmarks is the shipping port ofJawaharlal Nehru Port in the Nhava Sheva – Dronagiri nodes. The major business hubs in the city are CBD Belapur, Vashi, Nerul, and Mahape.The International Infotech Park at Vashi and Belapur railway station complex houses many international IT companies. The New Millennium City near Mahape forms a major part of the Knowledge Corridor that spans Mumbai and Pune.[2] The head office of Reliance Infocom – Dhirubhai Ambani Knowledge City is situated opposite the Koparkhairane station. Other IT companies in Navi Mumbai include L&T Infotech, Wipro Ltd, CMC, Tata Consultancy Services, Aptech, Track Mail, ICICI Infotech and PCS, whose offices are on Belapur Road.The Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located in the nodes of Dronagiri and Kalamboli are planned to provide commercial growth and employment to the city. Positioned en route the proposed Navi Mumbai Airport, this megaproject has attracted investments of close to 40,000 crores.Marathon Group has launched the development of its mini SEZ called "NexZone" near the site of the proposed airport. This mini SEZ will be specially for the IT/ITES industry and will be an integrated township of residential and commercial buildings, entertainment mall and education institutes. Honda SEIL's headquarters is located in Nerul MIDC.Airoli has many leading companies in IT sector which are situated just opposite of Airoli railway station(Mindspace).

Law and orderEdit

.(July 2008)As the population and prosperity of the city rose through the years, it began to attract more criminal activity. Navi Mumbai's crime count jumped up from 2,763 in 2003 to 3,571 in 2004. One of the main reasons for the spurt in crime is continuous political meddling in police investigations and the grossly under-staffed police force. There are very few police chowkies throughout Navi Mumbai with virtually non-existent beat chowkies and traffic police. Criminal activities in Navi Mumbai include chain snatching, pickpocketing, cellphone snatching. These crimes are mainly confined to sparsely populated areas. Navi Mumbai has witnessed several vehicle thefts and burglaries involving unoccupied houses. Murder and armed robbery take place in significant numbers. Riots and community feuds take place, especially in the Ghansoli area. There have been several instances where mobs of frustrated native villagers have beaten innocent law abiding residents. Nerul is especially plagued by robbery. The number of accidents on the Palm Beach Road caused by are growing at an alarming pace due to non-existent traffic police or security cameras. The absence of street lights on the highway between Belapur and Kharghar poses a continued danger to motorists.Shops and housing colonies often hire private security guards, as the police force is often overstretched. Businesses are expected to shut shop by 10 pm. The Mumbai underworld has begun to take notice of the city,[6] targeting the increasingly thriving businesses of cable operators, builders, and real estate developers for extortion. On the whole, crime in Navi Mumbai is much less than suburban Mumbai.

SportsEdit

The DY Patil International cricket Stadium in Nerul.Cricket is the prevalent sport in the city. Navi Mumbai has its own International Cricket Ground in Nerul called the DY Patil Stadium which hosted 3 IPL T-20 matches and the IPL T-20 Cricket Final. It is said that this stadium is one of the best in India. Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons, when other outdoor sports cannot be played. The FIFA World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai. India's national sport, field hockey, has gone into a sharp decline in the recent years, losing out in terms of popularity to cricket, though many Mumbai players play on the national team.Navi Mumbai has an olympic-size swimming pool at Nerul. CIDCO has proposed two 18-hole golf course academies at Nerul and Kharghar. There are plans to have sports facilities in the proposed 80 hectare central park being developed in Kharghar. The park is expected to open in mid-2010

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